All cases in this publication have been approved by the institutional Review Board at Chi Mei Hospital, Chi Mei Medical Foundation (IRB Number: 10708-006). We used routine urinalysis samples that could occur in the departments of Urology, Nephrology, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Transplantation Medicine, Rheumatology & Immunology, and Hepato-Gastroenterology as the reference cases for teaching.

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